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Areas for further research


  • Development of effective pharmacotherapies based on a basic science understanding of the effects of nicotine and the nicotinic receptor.
  • Development of more precise behavioural accounts of smoking that suggest more specific behavioural interventions.
  • Identify elements/components of behavioural interventions that will enhance effectiveness. 
  • Find ways of enabling healthcare professionals to deliver routine opportunistic advice to stop smoking more often. 
  • Investigate the effectiveness of combining NRT and non-nicotine pharmacotherapies. .
  • Investigate tailoring of pharmacotherapies to smoker characteristics.
  • Investigate long-term use of pharmacotherapies to prevent relapse to smoking. 
  • Investigate effect of continuing pharmacological or behavioural treatment after a lapse to prevent relapse.
  • Investigate use of pharmacotherapies in pregnancy.
  • Investigate whether use of NRT during temporary abstinence increases or decreases motivation to quit.
  • Investigate long-term use of NRT or other pharmacotherapies as a harm reduction strategy to reduce the amount smoked. 
  • Identify the most effective forms and components of behavioural smoking reduction interventions as a means to ultimately quit smoking.
  • Investigate 
  • the potential health benefits of PREPs and tobacco harm reduction approaches.
  • Develop and test interventions for adolescent smokers. 
  • Find ways of improving access to effective interventions. 
  • Identify organizational features of healthcare systems that support the delivery of appropriate interventions. 
  • Investigate repeated interventions for relapsers.
  • Investigate treatment of smokers with co-morbidities (psychiatric illness, other chemical dependencies).
  • Investigate proactive methods to prompt more smokers to make a quit attempt (e.g. phone calls or mailings).
  • Investigate the efficacy and safety of electronic cigarettes, including in pregnancy
  • Investigate the best ways to educate people effectively about the use of nicotine containing non-tobacco products, in comparison to tobacco products.
  • Investigate the relative efficacy and cost-effectiveness of different smoking cessation interventions.
  • Investigate the most effective interventions for smokers who are part of ‘hard-to-reach groups’.
  • Investigate which interventions are most effective in reducing the difference in the number of smokers in low compared with high socioeconomic groups.
  • Investigate which interventions are the most effective to help people stop smoking in communities where smoking and a group has cultural and social value.
  • Investigate how we can encourage and help mental health workers to o­ffer stop smoking services to patients with mental illness.
  • Investigate the most e­ffective and cost-e­ffective ways to help people with mental health problems to quit smoking inside and outside of mental health treatment settings.
  • Investigate the most eff­ective and cost-eff­ective way to help people who also have drug and alcohol problems to quit smoking
  • Identify the most eff­ective way to prompt people to quit smoking.
  • Identify the most e­ffective and cost-eff­ective methods pregnant smokers can use to give up smoking.
  • Investigate methods to ensure all healthcare providers provide cessation treatment that has been found to be e­ffective, safe & cost-eff­ective.
  • Identify the types of health providers who provide the most e­ffective support to help people to quit smoking, and how much training they need to be most e­ffective
  • Identify the most e­ffective interventions that can be used in primary care (e.g. doctors’ and dentists’ surgeries, pharmacies) to encourage more people to use stop smoking services and to give up smoking.
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