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Areas for further research


  • Development of pharmacotherapies based on a basic science understanding of the effects of nicotine and the nicotinic receptor.
  • Development of more precise behavioural accounts of smoking that suggest more specific behavioural interventions.
  • Identify elements of behavioural interventions that will enhance effectiveness.
  • Find ways of enabling healthcare professionals to deliver routine opportunistic advice to stop smoking more often.
  • Investigate the effectiveness of combining NRT and non-nicotine pharmacotherapies.
  • Investigate the relative efficacy of NRT and varenicline.
  • Investigate tailoring of pharmacotherapies to smoker characteristics.
  • Investigate long-term use of pharmacotherapies to prevent relapse to smoking.
  • Investigate effect of continuing pharmacological or behavioural treatment after a lapse to prevent relapse.
  • Investigate use of NRT in pregnancy.
  • Investigate whether use of NRT during temporary abstinence increases or decreases motivation to quit.
  • Investigate long-term use of NRT or other pharmacotherapies as a harm reduction strategy to reduce the amount smoked.
  • Investigate nicotine vaccines.
  • Investigate sensory replacement via low-nicotine cigarettes and other methods.
  • Develop and test interventions for adolescent smokers.
  • Find ways of improving access to effective interventions.
  • Identify organizational features of healthcare systems that support the delivery of appropriate interventions.
  • Investigate repeated interventions for relapsers.
  • Investigate treatment of smokers with co-morbidities (psychiatric illness, other chemical dependencies).
  • Investigate proactive methods to prompt more smokers to make a quit attempt (e.g. phone calls or mailings).
  • Investigate impact of healthcare reimbursement for smoking cessation intervention.
  • Investigate use of smokeless tobacco as a treatment for smoking cessation.
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