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Several other drugs show promise but most are not of proven efficacy as smoking cessation aids. Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs), opioid antagonists, lobeline, anxiolytics and silver acetate do not appear efficacious.



The many effects of nicotine and smoking on the brain have encouraged the search for pharmacotherapies which can moderate these effects, reduce craving or withdrawal, and increase long-term quit rates. Drugs that have been investigated include: dextrose, cannabinoid antagonists, monoamine-oxidase (MAO) inhibitors, mecamylamine, naltrexone, nicotine vaccines and sensory substitutes. Some of these have shown preliminary indications of effect on short-term quitting, but have not been proven to have a significant long-term effect in replicable studies.



Covey LS, Sullivan MA, Johnston JA, et al . Advances in non-nicotine pharmacotherapy for smoking cessation. Drugs. 2000; 59: 17-31.

Hughes JR, Stead LF, Hartmann-Boyce J, Cahill K, Lancaster T. Antidepressants for smoking cessation. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 2014, Issue 1. Art. No.: CD000031. DOI: 10.1002/14651858.CD000031.pub4.

Fiore MC, Jaén CR, Baker TB, et al. Treating Tobacco Use and Dependence: 2008 Update. Clinical Practice Guideline. Rockville, MD: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. Public Health Service. May 2008.

Hughes JR, Stead LF, Lancaster T. Anxiolytics for smoking cessation. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 2000; 4.

Stead LF, Hughes JR. Lobeline for smoking cessation. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 1997; 3.

Cahill K, Ussher MH. Cannabinoid type 1 receptor antagonists for smoking cessation. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 2011, Issue 3. Art. No.: CD005353. DOI: 10.1002/14651858.CD005353.pub4.

David SP, Lancaster T, Stead LF, Evins AE, Prochaska JJ. Opioid antagonists for smoking cessation. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 2013, Issue 6. Art. No.: CD003086. DOI: 10.1002/14651858.CD003086.pub3.

Hartmann-Boyce J, Cahill K, Hatsukami D, Cornuz J. Nicotine vaccines for smoking cessation. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 2012, Issue 8. Art. No.: CD007072. DOI: 10.1002/14651858.CD007072.pub2.

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